Dear students, we are presenting questions and answers notes of Pakistan and the Modern World – BA Modern English Essays for BA students. These notes are for Punjab University (PU). Sargodha University (UOS) and all other universities in Pakistan. If you want to download complete notes of BA English Part-1 and Part-2, click the links given below and download them in PDF format for free.
Q.1. How does Liaquat Ali Khan justify the demand for Pakistan?
Ans. Muslims knew from experience that in a free India dominated by Hindus their culture would be destroyed. This was the basic reason for their demand for a free country of their own.
The demand for Pakistan was in no way unreasonable. The Muslims and Hindus were divided by very serious religious, cultural, and social differences.
The Muslims believe in the unity of Allah. They believe in the Prophet of Arabia and Jesus Christ, and the prophets mentioned in the Old Testament. They believe in the equality of all men. They believe that every man and woman has the right to own property. Their religion encourages the distribution of wealth.
The Muslims were a nation by any definition, a nation bigger than most nations of the world. They were in majority in many large and contiguous areas of the sub-continent.
Q.2. What difficulties Pakistan had to face immediately after its establishment?
Ans. Immediately after its establishment, Pakistan had to face numerous difficulties. Setting up the administration of a new state is never easy, but in the case of Pakistan, The difficulties were extraordinary.
We had no flag and no capital. There was practically no administrative machinery. We had no engineers and traders. There was no industry in the new state. Pakistan was allotted an army but its men and officers were scattered in distant parts of India. Only a very small number could reach Pakistan in 1947. The major portion of’ its share of military equipment was never handed over to Pakistan.
Millions of Muslims were forced to flee from Bharat and come to Pakistan. They were in a miserable condition. They needed food, shelter, and medical aid. This alone was a huge task. The unity of the people and their firm faith, however, conquered all difficulties.
Q.3 What, in Liaquat Ali Khan’s opinion, the West, particularly America, owes to the people of Asia?
Ans. Almost all countries of Asia remained under Western colonial rule for two or three centuries. They were kept backward in all fields of life. They had no opportunity to acquire the knowledge of science and technology. The result is that, although they are free nations today, they are very poor and undeveloped.
The people Asia wish to get rid of their misery and poverty, but they need help. They are aware of the huge difference between their standard of living and that or the West. If the West does not help these backward countries in developing their resources, their impatience and discontent will go on increasing. They will remain unstable and will become a danger to world peace.
In today’s world, war and peace and prosperity are indivisible. Discontent and instability in one part of the world are bound to affect other parts. America and other countries or the West must help Asia for the sake of world peace. They must help this vast continent in the fields of technology and industry. This will enable millions or people to overc.0Jne their misery and poverty.
Q.4 What are the demands that our freedom makes on us?
Ans. The first duty of a free nation is to protect its freedom. If it cannot defend its freedom, it disgraces not only itself but also the free people of the whole world. Therefore, our first duty is to protect our freedom. And this would require continuous effort and vigilance.
Freedom from foreign rule only is not real or complete freedom. It is only the first stage, though a very important stage. People should be able to choose their government is not enough. True freedom means freedom from poverty, disease, and ignorance. When a nation overcomes these evils, it will become a truly free nation.
During the last two or three centuries of foreign rule, we have remained backward while the West has achieved great progress and prosperity. We have to march on al double pace to catch up with the developed countries of the world. While holding fast to our faith we must acquire modern technology very quickly to make Pakistan a prosperous country.
Q .5 How, according to Liaquat Ali Khan, did the creation of two states in the Indian sub-continent contribute to the creation of stability in Asia?
Ans. Undivided India was a vast sub-continent where one hundred million Muslins lived with three hundred million other people, mostly Hindus. The Muslims and the Hindus were in fact two very different nations who had almost nothing in common.
The Muslims believe in the unity of God and in all the prophets. They believe in the equality of all human beings. Their religion prescribes laws that encourage social justice.
The Hindus worship many gods. They believe in a caste system that divided human beings into superior and inferior classes. It is a sin for the superior castes even to touch a person belonging to the inferior or ‘untouchable’ class,
It was a fact that these two nations could never live in peace in one country when the British left India. The Hindus were determined to rule free India according to their own ideology which did not tolerate any other culture. The Muslims were equally determined to defend their religion and culture. They were numerous enough and strong enough to do so.
The result of this would have been a never-ending civil war in India. The creation of Pakistan did avert this very dangerous situation. Later history or the relations between Pakistan and Bharat has confirmed this.